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Einfluss von Biostimulanzien und Lichtreflexionsfolie auf die Fruchtqualität und Farbentwicklung bei Apfel

Schuhknecht, Henrike, Damerow, Lutz, Kunz, Achim, Blanke, Michael
Erwerbsobstbau 2018 v.60 no.2 pp. 89-103
absorption, apples, brix, chlorophyll, color, economic analysis, fruit quality, fruits, longevity, mulches, ripening, starch, trees, wages and remuneration, Germany
The aim of this research was to improve inner and external fruit quality and fruit colouration using four-year-old apple ‘Braeburn, Hillwell’ trees on M9 (3 m × 1 m spacing) by employing reflective ground covers and biostimulants at Klein-Altendorf, nr. Bonn, Germany (50°N). Two reflective ground covers were spread on both sides of tree rows seven weeks before anticipated harvest and two biostimulants were applied two times – four and two weeks before harvest. Adjacent trees of the same row without reflective ground cover or without biostimulants served as control.Reflective ground covers significantly improved red colouration from 71°hue in the control to 49°hue with the ground cover Lumilys® and to 40°hue with Extenday®. The red colouration of the lower surface of fruits improved from 85°hue in the control to 52°hue with Lumilys® and 40°hue by Extenday®. Apple trees with Extenday® and Lumilys® produced 69% and 44% well-coloured fruit (with 75–100% fruit colouration) compared with 16–26% in the control.By contrast, an acceleration of ripening processes was not observed in plots with reflective ground covers compared with the control. There were no differences in sugar contents (°Brix) and fruit firmness (kg/cm²), but starch breakdown in fruit with reflective mulch was significantly delayed compared with the control resulting in retarded maturation.An economic analysis based on material costs and lifespan – excluding the labour costs for spreading and removing the ground covers – showed an economic advantage, if these mulches are used more than once a year.Both biostimulants showed neither effects on inner and external fruit quality nor on fruit colouration. Fruits with Wuxal®ATRiun or Sunred® did not improve the percentage of well-coloured fruits (75%–100% fruit surface with red colouration) compared with the untreated control. Similarly, inner and external fruit quality showed no significant differences in fruit firmness, sugar content and starch degradation. An economic analysis based on chemicals’ costs – excluding the labour costs for applying the biostimulants – resulted in no economic advantage. The chlorophyll – based ‘Index of Absorption Difference’ (IAD; measured non-destructively by the DA-meter) in some cases correlated positively with the Streif (maturation) index based on destructive assessment fruit firmness, sugar content and starch breakdown in an ‘ART system’.