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UV-B susceptibility and photoreactivation in embryonic development of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae

Yoshioka, Yoshio, Gotoh, Tetsuo, Suzuki, Takeshi
Experimental & applied acarology 2018 v.75 no.2 pp. 155-166
DNA damage, Tetranychus urticae, acarology, eggs, embryogenesis, irradiation, morphogenesis, oviposition, pests, physical control, ultraviolet radiation
Developmental errors are often induced in the embryos of many organisms by environmental stress. Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is one of the most serious environmental stressors in embryonic development. Here, we investigated susceptibility to UV-B (0.5 kJ m⁻²) in embryos of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to examine the potential use of UV-B in control of this important agricultural pest worldwide. Peak susceptibility to UV-B (0% hatchability) was found in T. urticae eggs 36–48 h after oviposition at 25 °C, which coincides with the stages of morphogenesis forming the germ band and initial limb primordia. However, hatchability recovered to ~ 80% when eggs irradiated with UV-B were subsequently exposed to visible radiation (VIS) at 10.2 kJ m⁻², driving photoreactivation (the photoenzymatic repair of DNA damage). The recovery effect decreased to 40–70% hatchability, depending on the embryonic developmental stage, when VIS irradiation was delayed for 4 h after the end of exposure to UV-B. Thus UV-B damage to T. urticae embryos is critical, particularly in the early stages of morphogenesis, and photoreactivation functions to mitigate UV-B damage, even in the susceptible stages, but immediate VIS irradiation is needed after exposure to UV-B. These findings suggest that nighttime irradiation with UV-B can effectively kill T. urticae eggs without subsequent photoreactivation and may be useful in the physical control of this species.