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Variation in the coding and 3′ untranslated regions of the porcine prolactin receptor short form modifies protein expression and function

Josephine F. Trott, Bradley A. Freking, Russell C. Hovey
Animal genetics 2014 v.45 no.1 pp. 74-86
3' untranslated regions, amino acids, complementary DNA, endometrium, exons, gene deletion, gene expression, gene expression regulation, haplotypes, mammary glands, molecular cloning, open reading frames, phenotype, pregnancy, prolactin, prolactin receptors, promoter regions, protein synthesis, single nucleotide polymorphism, swine, transcription (genetics), translation (genetics)
The actions of prolactin (PRL) are mediated by both long (LF) and short isoforms (SF) of the PRL receptor (PRLR). Here, we report on a genetic and functional analysis of the porcine PRLR (pPRLR) SF. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within exon 11 of the pPRLR-SF give rise to four amino acid haplotypes of the intracellular domain. We identified the dimorphic insertion of a short interspersed repetitive DNA element (PRE-1) along with 32 SNPs and four other insertion/deletion sites within the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of pPRLR-SF. The PRE-1 element reduced protein translation in vitro by 75%, whereas the combination of 10 SNPs and one insertion/deletion decreased translation by 50%. Full-length cDNAs for all four haplotypes of pPRLR-SF were cloned behind the elongation factor 1-alpha promoter and functionally analyzed in vitro. None of the haplotypes could initiate transcription from the ß-casein promoter, whereas all four were dominant negatives against PRL-activation of the pPRLR-LF. Two of the haplotypes completely inhibited pPRLR-LF activity at a four-fold excess, whereas the others required a six-fold excess to impart the same effect. The ligand binding affinities of the pPRLR-SF haplotypes did not differ. Expression of the pPRLR-SF increased linearly during gestation in the endometrium and was hormonally regulated in a tissue-specific manner in the mammary glands and uterus. In conclusion, we identified a PRE-1 and other SNPs in the pPRLR-SF 3' UTR that reduce protein expression and four haplotypes of the pPRLR-SF that suppress pPRLR-LF signaling and may differentially impact the phenotypic effects of PRL in vivo.