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Alterations of antioxidant indexes and inflammatory cytokine expression aggravated hepatocellular apoptosis through mitochondrial and death receptor-dependent pathways in Gallus gallus exposed to arsenic and copper

Liu, Juanjuan, Zhao, Hongjing, Wang, Yu, Shao, Yizhi, Li, Jinglun, Xing, Mingwei
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.16 pp. 15462-15473
B-lymphocytes, Gallus gallus, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, apoptosis, arsenic, arsenic oxide, caspase-3, chickens, chromatin, copper, copper sulfate, cytochrome c, cytokines, death, death domain receptors, diet, genes, hepatocytes, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, liver, males, mitochondria, nuclear membrane, oxidative stress, protein synthesis, subchronic exposure, tissues, transcription factor NF-kappa B, vacuoles
In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of sub-chronic exposure of arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) on oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and mitochondria and death receptor apoptosis pathways in chicken liver. Seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were treated with basal diet, 30 mg/kg arsenic trioxide (As₂O₃), or/and 300 mg/kg copper sulfate (CuSO₄) for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Study revealed that exposure to As or/and Cu undermined the antioxidant function and increased lipid peroxidation. Worse yet, liver cell swollen, vacuolar degeneration, and inflammatory cell infiltration were accompanied by an increase of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its downstream inflammation-related genes after exposure to As or/and Cu. Furthermore, mitochondria swollen and chromatin condensation were found in As and Cu groups, and hepatocyte nuclear membrane rupture and markedly increased (P < 0.01) apoptosis index were observed in As combined with Cu group. Meanwhile, the transcription and protein expression levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), p53, cytochrome c (Cyt c), and caspase-3, 8, 9 were upregulated and B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) was downregulated in As, Cu, and As + Cu groups in the liver tissues (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Our results indicated that exposure to As or/and Cu could lead to oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and tissue damage and aggravate hepatocellular apoptosis through mitochondrial and death receptor-dependent pathways in chicken liver. And As and Cu showed a possible synergistic relationship in liver damage.