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A comparative study to evaluate efficiency of EDTA and calcium in alleviating arsenic toxicity to germinating and young Vicia faba L. seedlings
- Rafiq, Marina, Shahid, Muhammad, Shamshad, Saliha, Khalid, Sana, Niazi, NabeelKhan, Abbas, Ghulam, Saeed, MuhammadFarhan, Ali, Mazhar, Murtaza, Behzad
- Journal of soils and sediments 2018 v.18 no.6 pp. 2271-2281
- EDTA (chelating agent), Vicia faba, arsenic, calcium, calcium chloride, chlorophyll, hydrogen peroxide, hydroponics, leaves, lipid peroxidation, nutrient solutions, plant organs, polluted soils, risk assessment, roots, sand, seedlings, seeds, toxicity
- PURPOSE: This study delineated the effect of calcium (Ca) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition on arsenic (As) accumulation and physiological attributes of Vicia faba L. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two separate experiments were performed. In the first experiment, V. faba seedlings, grown under hydroponic conditions, were exposed to three levels of As (25, 125 and 250 μM) in the presence and absence of three levels of EDTA (25, 125, 250 μM) and calcium (CaCl₂: 1, 5 and 10 mM). The effect of EDTA and Ca on As accumulation and physiological attributes of V. faba was assessed by determining As contents in roots and shoot, chlorophyll contents, H₂O₂ contents, and lipid peroxidation in young and old leaves. In the second experiment, V. faba seeds were grown in As-contaminated sand culture using the same treatment plan. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The accumulation and toxicity of As to V. faba plants increased with increasing As levels in nutrient solution. Arsenic exposure enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both roots and leaves, which resulted in lipid peroxidation and decreased chlorophyll contents. The presence of both EDTA and Ca, in general, significantly decreased As accumulation by V. faba seedlings, Ca being more effective than EDTA. Both the amendments decreased As-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation. In the case of chlorophyll contents, EDTA significantly decreased chlorophyll contents, while Ca significantly increased chlorophyll contents compared to As. The effect of all the treatments was more pronounced in roots than leaves and in young leaves compared to old leaves. CONCLUSIONS: It is proposed that EDTA and Ca greatly affect As accumulation and toxicity to V. faba, and the effect varies greatly with their applied levels as well as type and age of plant organs. The germinating seedlings of V. faba may be preferred for risk assessment studies, while transplanting 1-week-old V. faba seedlings to As-contaminated soils can decrease its toxicity.