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Clastogenic ROS and biophotonics in precancerous diagnosis

Naveed, Muhammad, Raees, Mohammad, Liaqat, Irfan, Kashif, Mohammad
Frontiers in biology 2018 v.13 no.2 pp. 103-122
biomarkers, biophotonics, cameras, cellular microenvironment, death, human health, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, lipid peroxidation, mutagens, neoplasms, photons, spectroscopy, therapeutics
BACKGROUND: Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. The application of biophotonics for diagnosing precancerous lesions is a major breakthrough in oncology and is associated with the expression of clastogenic bio-markers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), namely, superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and lipid peroxidation products. These ROS are the major sources of ultra-weak biophotons emission; in addition, biophotons are emitted from other biomolecules, which are not associated with ROS. The precancerous phase is diagnosed on the basis of biophoton emission from biomarkers. The type of biophotons emitted depends on the structure of the clastogenic ROS. METHODS: ROS-based emission of ultra-weak photons can be detected using charge coupled device (CCD) cameras and photomultiplier tubes. Furthermore, spectroscopic and microscopic analysis can yield more advanced and definite results. RESULTS: The frequency and intensity of biophoton emission associated with each ROS provides information regarding the precancerous phase. Previous have attempted to show an association between precancerous growth and biophoton emission; however, their results were not conclusive. In this review, we have addressed multiple aspects of the molecular environment, especially light- matter interactions, to derive a successful theoretical relationship which may have the ability to diaganose the tumor at precancerous stage and to give the solutions of previous failures. This can be a major quantum leap toward precancerous diagnosis therapy. CONCLUSION: Biophotonics provides an advanced framework, for easily diagnosing cancer at its preliminary stage. The relationship between biophotons, clastogenic factors, and biochemical reactions in the cellular microenvironment can be understood successfully. The advancement in precancerous diagnosis will improve human health worldwide. The versatility of biophotonics can be used further for novel applications in biology, biochemistry, chemistry and social fields.