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The Protective Effect of Selenium on the Chicken Pancreas against Cadmium Toxicity via Alleviating Oxidative Stress and Autophagy

Liu, Ruohan, Jia, Tiantian, Cui, Yuan, Lin, Hongjin, Li, Shu
Biological trace element research 2018 v.184 no.1 pp. 240-246
adverse effects, animal and human health, antagonism, antioxidant activity, autophagy, cadmium, catalase, chickens, concrete, dynein ATPase, genes, glutathione peroxidase, heavy metals, models, oxidative stress, pancreas, poisoning, protective effect, protein synthesis, rats, selenium, superoxide dismutase, toxicity, ultrastructure
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal that can affect human and animal health. Selenium (Se) is an essential microelement that can protect various organs against toxic heavy metals. Although many studies have investigated the adverse effect of Cd in rats and several other animals, little is known regarding the mechanisms of Cd-induced autophagy in the chicken pancreas and the antagonistic effect of Se on Cd. In the current study, we fed chickens Se, Cd, or Se and Cd supplements to establish the Se and Cd interaction model and to measure the concentrations of Se and Cd in the chicken pancreas. The ultrastructure changes of the chicken pancreas were also observed, and we detected oxidative stress indexes in each group. The expression levels of autophagy-related genes were also examined. We found that Cd exposure could increase the concentration of Cd, the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px); and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) content in the chicken pancreas. The protein expression levels of dynein, Beclin1, LC3-1, LC3-2, and Atg5 were increased and that of TOR was decreased under Cd exposure conditions. However, the changes induced by Cd were significantly alleviated by Se. This study suggested that Cd could accumulate in the chicken pancreas and lead to oxidative stress and autophagy. Se was shown to antagonize Cd toxicity though reducing Cd accumulation, alleviating oxidative stress, and inhibiting autophagy. This study revealed a concrete mechanism for the Se antagonism of Cd and might provide a new clue for the detoxification of Cd poisoning.