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A novel first exon directs hormone-sensitive transcription of the pig prolactin receptor

Schennink, Anke, Trott, Josephine F., Freking, Bradley A., Hovey, Russell C.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 2013 v.51 no.1 pp. 1
adrenal glands, animal tissues, binding sites, enhancer elements, estrogen receptors, estrogens, exons, gene expression, gene expression regulation, hormonal regulation, lactation, mammary glands, messenger RNA, pregnancy, prolactin, prolactin receptors, promoter regions, swine, synthetic progestogens, transcription (genetics), transcription factors, uterus
Endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine prolactin (PRL) acts through its receptor (PRLR) to confer a wide range of biological functions, including its established role during lactation. We have identified a novel first exon of the porcine PRLR that gives rise to three different mRNA transcripts. Transcription of this first exon is tissue specific, where it increases during gestation in the adrenal glands and uterus. Within the mammary glands, its transcription is induced by estrogen and PRL, while in the uterus, its expression is downregulated by progestin. The promoter region has an enhancer element located between -453 and -424 bp and a putative repressor element between -648 and -596 bp. Estrogen, acting through the estrogen receptor, activates transcription from this promoter through both E-box and transcription factor AP-2 α binding sites. These findings support the concept that the multilevel hormonal regulation of PRLR transcription contributes to the various biological functions of PRL.