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Biodiversity of fungi on Vitis vinifera L. revealed by traditional and high-resolution culture-independent approaches
- Jayawardena, RuvishikaS., Purahong, Witoon, Zhang, Wei, Wubet, Tesfaye, Li, XingHong, Liu, Mei, Zhao, Wensheng, Hyde, KevinD., Liu, JianHua, Yan, Jiye
- Fungal diversity 2018 v.90 no.1 pp. 1-84
- Ascomycota, Vitis vinifera, biodiversity, cultivars, endophytes, fungal communities, fungi, internal transcribed spacers, phylogeny, plant pathogens, saprotrophs, spores, table grapes, vineyards, wine grapes, China
- This study is unique as it compares traditional and high-resolution culture-independent approaches using the same set of samples to study the saprotrophic fungi on Vitis vinifera. We identified the saprotrophic communities of table grape (Red Globe) and wine grape (Carbanate Gernischet) in China using both traditional and culture-independent techniques. The traditional approach used direct observations based on morphology, single spore isolation and phylogenetic analysis yielding 45 taxa which 19 were commonly detected in both cultivars. The same set of samples were then used for Illumina sequencing which analyzed ITS1 sequence data and detected 226 fungal OTUs, of which 176 and 189 belong to the cultivars Carbanate Gernischet and Red Globe, respectively. There were 139 OTUs shared between the two V. vinifera cultivars and 37 and 50 OTUs were specific to Carbanate Gernischet and Red Globe cultivars respectively. In the Carbanate Gernischet cultivar, Ascomycota accounted for 77% of the OTUs and in Red Globe, almost all sequenced were Ascomycota. The fungal taxa overlap at the genus and species level between the traditional and culture-independent approach was relatively low. In the traditional approach we were able to identify the taxa to species level, while in the culture-independent method we were frequently able to identify the taxa to family or genus level. This is remarkable as we used the same set of samples collected in China for both approaches. We recommend the use of traditional techniques to accurately identify taxa. Culture-independent method can be used to get a better understanding about the organisms that are present in a host in its natural environment. We identified primary and secondary plant pathogens and endophytes in the saprotrophic fungal communities, which support previous observations, that dead plant material in grape vineyards can be the primary sources of disease. Finally, based on present and previous findings, we provide a worldwide checklist of 905 fungal taxa on Vitis species, which includes their mode of life and distribution.