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Influence of temperature and humidity on the survival of Monilinia fructicola conidia on stone fruits and inert surfaces

Bernat, M., Segarra, J., Navas‐Cortés, J.A., Casals, C., Torres, R., Teixidó, N., Usall, J.
Annals of applied biology 2018 v.173 no.1 pp. 63-70
Monilinia fructicola, conidia, fruits, fungi, growing season, orchards, relative humidity, stone fruits, temperature, viability
The survival of the fungus Monilinia fructicola on fruit and inert surfaces at different temperatures (range: 0–30°C) and relative humidity (RH) (range: 60–100%) was investigated. M. fructicola conidia survived better on fruit than on inert surfaces. The viability reduction rate at 20°C and 60% RH was 1.2 and 5.8 days⁻¹ on fruit and inert surfaces, respectively. Overall, on fruit surfaces, conidia viability was reduced at high temperatures and was longer at higher RH than at lower RH; in contrast, on inert surfaces, conidia viability was longer at only low temperatures. On fruit surfaces, at 0°C and 100% RH, conidia survived up to 35 days, and at 30°C and 60% RH, conidia survived up to 7 days. However, on inert surfaces at 20°C and 30°C, conidia lost their viability after 48 and 24 h, respectively. These results suggest that M. fructicola can remain viable in cold rooms for over 30 days on fruit surfaces or over 25 days on inert surfaces. Furthermore, under the orchard conditions during the growing season, conidia may remain viable for only 2–3 days on immature fruit surfaces before conidia will be unable to penetrate the host.