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The effect of flavor content in e-liquids on e-cigarette emissions of carbonyl compounds
- Qu, Yao, Kim, Ki-Hyun, Szulejko, Jan E.
- Environmental research 2018 v.166 pp. 324-333
- acetone, beverages, breathing, carbonyl compounds, desserts, electric power, electronic equipment, emissions, emissions factor, flavor, flavor compounds, formaldehyde, fruits, glycerol, ingredients, mint, neoplasms, propylene glycol, risk, tobacco, vegetables
- The effect of flavors on carbonyl compound (CC) emission factors (EF) from electronic cigarettes (ECs) vaping was investigated at the default vaping (voltage) setting in all experiments using a total of 21 lab-made e-liquid samples (five different types of retail flavorant bases: beverage/dessert/fruit/mint/tobacco). Each flavorant base was added to a separate unflavored base composed of a 1:1 mixture of propylene glycol/vegetable glycerol (PG/VG) at four levels (5/10/30/50% (v/v)). The e-liquid CC levels increased linearly with flavorant base content, 1.3–10.5 times (R2: 0.762–0.999). The vaping CC EFs increased linearly with flavorant base content (if ≥ 10%) from 1.0 to 92 times (R2: 0.431–0.998). For flavorant base content of 0%, 5%, and 10%, the EFs ranged from undetected to 0.11 μg puff−1 (acetone). The 40-year cancer risk due to formaldehyde (70 kg EC user inhaling 5% flavorant base content e-liquid: 120 puffs day−1) is estimated to be 2.0E-06 (highest) compared to 1.0E-06 for the 1:1 PG:VG base. Most formaldehyde vaped from the fruit flavored e-liquid was the flavorant base. The CC concentrations in EC liquids (before vaping) were approximately linear with e-liquid flavorant base content. Retail e-liquid product information labels should be guided to provide a complete list of all ingredients, their concentrations, and carbonyl compound EFs.