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Effect of inlet modelling on surface drainage in coupled urban flood simulation

Jang, Jiun-Huei, Chang, Tien-Hao, Chen, Wei-Bo
Journal of hydrology 2018 v.562 pp. 168-180
equations, hydrodynamics, models, overland flow, rain, runoff, surface drainage, surface water, urban areas
For a highly developed urban area with complete drainage systems, flood simulation is necessary for describing the flow dynamics from rainfall, to surface runoff, and to sewer flow. In this study, a coupled flood model based on diffusion wave equations was proposed to simulate one-dimensional sewer flow and two-dimensional overland flow simultaneously. The overland flow model provides details on the rainfall-runoff process to estimate the excess runoff that enters the sewer system through street inlets for sewer flow routing. Three types of inlet modelling are considered in this study, including the manhole-based approach that ignores the street inlets by draining surface water directly into manholes, the inlet-manhole approach that drains surface water into manholes that are each connected to multiple inlets, and the inlet-node approach that drains surface water into sewer nodes that are connected to individual inlets. The simulation results were compared with a high-intensity rainstorm event that occurred in 2015 in Taipei City. In the verification of the maximum flood extent, the two approaches that considered street inlets performed considerably better than that without street inlets. When considering the aforementioned models in terms of temporal flood variation, using manholes as receivers leads to an overall inefficient draining of the surface water either by the manhole-based approach or by the inlet-manhole approach. Using the inlet-node approach is more reasonable than using the inlet-manhole approach because the inlet-node approach greatly reduces the fluctuation of the sewer water level. The inlet-node approach is more efficient in draining surface water by reducing flood volume by 13% compared with the inlet-manhole approach and by 41% compared with the manhole-based approach. The results show that inlet modeling has a strong influence on drainage efficiency in coupled flood simulation.