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Methodological factors influencing inhalation bioaccessibility of metal(loid)s in PM2.5 using simulated lung fluid

Kastury, Farzana, Smith, E., Karna, Ranju R., Scheckel, Kirk G., Juhasz, A.L.
Environmental pollution 2018 v.241 pp. 930-937
agitation, arsenic, bioavailability, breathing, dust, gastrointestinal system, ingestion, lead, liquids, lungs, magnetism, mining, particulates, soil, solubility
In this study, methodological factors influencing the dissolution of metal(loid)s in simulated lung fluid (SLF) was assessed in order to develop a standardised method for the assessment of inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5. To achieve this aim, the effects of solid to liquid (S/L) ratio (1:100 to 1:5000), agitation (magnetic agitation, occasional shaking, orbital and end-over-end rotation), composition of SLF (artificial lysosomal fluid: ALF; phagolysosomal simulant fluid: PSF) and extraction time (1–120 h) on metal(loid) bioaccessibility were investigated using PM2.5 from three Australian mining/smelting impacted soils and a certified reference material. The results highlighted that SLF composition significantly (p < 0.001) influenced metal(loid) bioaccessibility and that when a S/L ratio of 1:5000 and end-over-end rotation was used, metal(loid) solubility plateaued after approximately 24 h. Additionally, in order to assess the exposure of metal(loid)s via incidental ingestion of surface dust, PM2.5 was subjected to simulated gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) solutions and the results were compared to extraction using SLF. Although As bioaccessibility in SLF (24 h) was significantly lower than in simulated GIT solutions (p < 0.05), Pb bioaccessibility was equal to or significantly higher than that extracted using simulated GIT solutions (p < 0.05).