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Towards utilization of the human genome and microbiome for personalized nutrition

Bashiardes, Stavros, Godneva, Anastasia, Elinav, Eran, Segal, Eran
Current opinion in biotechnology 2018 v.51 pp. 57-63
bioavailability, diet, dietary recommendations, genome, guidelines, humans, intestinal microorganisms, lifestyle, metabolic diseases, metabolic syndrome, metabolism, metabolites, microbiome, nutrients, pandemic, people
Generalized dietary and lifestyle guidelines have been formulated and published for decades now from a variety of relevant agencies in an attempt to guide people towards healthy choices. As the pandemic rise in metabolic diseases continues to increase, it has become clear that the one-fit-for-all diet approach does not work and that there is a significant variation in inter-individual responses to diet and lifestyle interventions. Recent technological advances have given an unprecedented insight into the sources of this variation, pointing towards our genome and microbiome as potentially and previously under-explored culprits contributing to individually unique dietary responses. Variations in our genome influence the bioavailability and metabolism of nutrients between individuals, while inter-individual compositional variation of commensal gut microbiota leads to different microbe functional potential, metabolite production and metabolism modulation. Quantifying and incorporating these factors into a comprehensive personalized nutrition approach may enable practitioners to rationally incorporate individual nutritional recommendations in combating the metabolic syndrome pandemic.