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Processing and Enzymatic Treatment Effects on Louisiana-Grown Fresh Satsuma Juice

John C. Beaulieu, Maureen A. Tully, Rebecca E. Stein-Chisholm, Javier M. Obando-Ulloa
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 2014 v.139 no.4 pp. 374-387
Citrus reticulata, acidity, commercialization, consumer satisfaction, enzymatic treatment, enzymes, food processing, fresh produce, fruit juices, odor compounds, odors, peelers, peeling, satsumas, storage conditions, sweetness, Louisiana
A study was performed to evaluate the ability to rapidly produce fresh satsuma (Citrus reticulata) juice from local fruit with minimum processing inputs. Volatile flavor and aroma compounds, subjective assessments, and quality parameters were used to determine the changes that occur from different juice processing techniques, storage conditions, and enzymatic treatments. In freshly pressed Louisiana-grown satsuma juices, 44 compounds were recovered, of which 31 were positively identified. Based on volatile recovery and a consensus approach used in orangefleshed Citrus species reported in the literature, 19 compounds were evaluated. Limonene was the dominant integrated peak in all unpeeled and peeled pressed juices (PPJ). Peel removal resulted in 98.4% of the total volatiles being lost and the distribution of the volatiles remaining was markedly different compared with whole-pressed fruit juice. Aside from a 63.4% increase in valencene after enzyme treatments, there seemed to be no marked volatile, subjective, or quality improvements from the enzymes used in this study. In general, peeled pressed fruit produced an acceptable, mildly citrus-flavored, balanced acidity, sweet, not-from-concentrate juice. Concentrates made from PPJ and reconstituted satsuma juices indicated clearly that most desirable aroma/flavor volatile compounds were stripped from juices during concentrating. Data reported suggest more attention would be required to maintain the top notes and subtle volatile balance during commercialization in rapidly produced fresh satsuma juices through use of industrial equipment (peeler) or by adding back essence or flavor packs for consistent consumer satisfaction.