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Metabolic flux analysis of Gluconacetobacter xylinus for bacterial cellulose production

Zhong, Cheng, Zhang, Gui-Cai, Liu, Miao, Zheng, Xin-Tong, Han, Pei-Pei, Jia, Shi-Ru
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2013 v.97 no.14 pp. 6189-6199
Gluconacetobacter xylinus, biodiesel, byproducts, carbon, cellulose, fructose, gluconic acid, glucose, glycerol, metabolism, porosity, tensile strength
Metabolic flux analysis was used to reveal the metabolic distributions in Gluconacetobacter xylinus (CGMCC no. 2955) cultured on different carbon sources. Compared with other sources, glucose, fructose, and glycerol could achieve much higher bacterial cellulose (BC) yields from G. xylinus (CGMCC no. 2955). The glycerol led to the highest BC production with a metabolic yield of 14.7 g/mol C, which was approximately 1.69-fold and 2.38-fold greater than that produced using fructose and glucose medium, respectively. The highest BC productivity from G. xylinus CGMCC 2955 was 5.97 g BC/L (dry weight) when using glycerol as the sole carbon source. Metabolic flux analysis for the central carbon metabolism revealed that about 47.96 % of glycerol was transformed into BC, while only 19.05 % of glucose and 24.78 % of fructose were transformed into BC. Instead, when glucose was used as the sole carbon source, 40.03 % of glucose was turned into the by-product gluconic acid. Compared with BC from glucose and fructose, BC from the glycerol medium showed the highest tensile strength at 83.5 MPa, with thinner fibers and lower porosity. As a main byproduct of biodiesel production, glycerol holds great potential to produce BC with superior mechanical and microstructural characteristics.