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Dendrobium nobile Lindley and its bibenzyl component moscatilin are able to protect retinal cells from ischemia/hypoxia by dowregulating placental growth factor and upregulating Norrie disease protein

Chao, Wen-Haur, Lai, Ming-Yi, Pan, Hwai-Tzong, Shiu, Huei-Wen, Chen, Mi-Mi, Chao, Hsiao-Ming
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 2018 v.18 no.1 pp. 193
Dendrobium nobile, cell viability, dimethyl sulfoxide, electroretinography, ganglia, glucose, histopathology, hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor 1, ischemia, models, nitrogen, oxygen, placental growth factor, protective effect, protein content, rats, retina, vimentin
BACKGROUND: Presumably, progression of developmental retinal vascular disorders is mainly driven by persistent ischemia/hypoxia. An investigation into vision-threatening retinal ischemia remains important. Our aim was to evaluate, in relation to retinal ischemia, protective effects and mechanisms of Dendrobium nobile Lindley (DNL) and its bibenzyl component moscatilin. The therapeutic mechanisms included evaluations of levels of placental growth factor (PLGF) and Norrie disease protein (NDP). METHODS: An oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) model involved cells cultured in DMEM containing 1% O₂, 94% N₂ and 0 g/L glucose. High intraocular pressure (HIOP)-induced retinal ischemia was created by increasing IOP to 120 mmHg for 60 min in Wistar rats. The methods included electroretinogram (ERG), histopathology, MTT assay and biochemistry. RESULTS: When compared with cells cultured in DMEM containing DMSO (DMSO+DMEM), cells subjected to OGD and pre-administrated with DMSO (DMSO+OGD) showed a significant reduction in the cell viability and NDP expression. Moreover, cells that received OGD and 1 h pre-administration of 0.1 μM moscatilin (Pre-OGD Mos 0.1 μM) showed a significant counteraction of the OGD-induced decreased cell viability. Furthermore, compared with the DMSO+OGD group (44.54 ± 3.15%), there was significant elevated NDP levels in the Pre-OGD Mos 0.1 μM group (108.38 ± 29.33%). Additionally, there were significant ischemic alterations, namely reduced ERG b-wave, less numerous retinal ganglion cells, decreased inner retinal thickness, and reduced/enhanced amacrine’s ChAT/Müller’s GFAP or vimentin immunolabelings. Moreover, there were significantly increased protein levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, PKM2, RBP2 and, particularly, PLGF (pg/ml; Sham vs. Vehicle: 15.11 ± 1.58 vs. 39.53 ± 5.25). These ischemic effects were significantly altered when 1.0 g/Kg/day DNL (DNL1.0 + I/R or I/R+ DNL1.0) was applied before and/or after ischemia, but not vehicle (Vehicle+I/R). Of novelty and significance, the DNL1.0 action mechanism appears to be similar to that of the anti-PLGF Eylea [PLGF (pg/ml); DNL1.0 vs. Eylea+I/R: 19.93 ± 2.24 vs. 6.44 ± 0.60]. CONCLUSIONS: DNL and moscatilin are able to protect against retinal ischemic/hypoxic changes respectively by downregulating PLGF and upregulating NDP. Progression of developmental retinal vascular disorders such as Norrie disease due to persistent ischemia/hypoxia might be thus prevented.