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Ultrasonic vibration seeds showed improved resistance to cadmium and lead in wheat seedling

Chen, Yi-ping, Liu, Qiang, Yue, Xiao-zhen, Meng, Zhong-wen, Liang, Jing
Environmental science and pollution research international 2013 v.20 no.7 pp. 4807-4816
antioxidant activity, biotic stress, cadmium, chlorophyll, crops, glutathione-disulfide reductase, heavy metals, human health, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, lead, photosynthetically active radiation, plasma membrane, protein synthesis, relative humidity, seed germination, seedling growth, seedlings, seeds, shoots, soil ecology, soil quality, superoxide dismutase, vibration, wheat
Heavy metals have long-term adverse impacts on the health of soil ecosystems and even exhibit hazardous influences on human health. Literatures have shown that heavy metals could result in the reduction of crops growth and development and finally result in crops production decline. To determine whether or not ultrasonic vibration alleviate damage induced by cadmium and lead in crops, the wheat seeds, which is one of the most important agriculture crops in China and other countries in the world, were exposed to 10 min ultrasonic vibration and then the toxicological effects were investigated. Wheat seeds were soaked for 3 h with water and then the seeds were placed in clean beaker with some water, the beaker were placed in ultrasonic apparatus to vibrate (model, KQ-200VDV; frequency, 45 KHz; power, 160 W). Pretreatment seeds of 80 were sown in dishes (Ø 15 cm). After seeds emergence, the seedlings were thinned to 60 per dish. The dishes with seedlings were placed in a growth chamber maintained at 25 °C, 70 % relative humidity and 380 μmol mol(-1) CO2 under dark condition. A 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetically active radiation was provided for 8 h (dark for 16 h) after the seed germination. When the seedlings were 2 days old, the seedlings were subjected to cadmium and lead for 4 days and then some selective biochemical and physiological parameters were measured. (1) Although each doses of ultrasonic vibration could improve seed germination, enhance biosynthesis of protein and chlorophyll and seedlings growth, the optimum dosage of ultrasonic vibration was 10 min. (2) Compared with the controls, cadmium and lead stress led to significant increase in the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and O(-2) and in the conductivity of electrolyte leakage, but the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), the glutathione concentration, and the shoot weight were decreased by Cd and Pb stress. In the case of the seeds exposed to ultrasonic vibration and the seedlings followed by cadmium lead stress, the concentrations of MDA and O(-2), and the conductivity of electrolyte leakage were significantly lower than those in cadmium and lead stress; the activities of CAT, SOD, and GR and the shoot weight were significantly higher (except for glutathione (GSH) concentration) than those in cadmium and lead stress seedlings. The membrane is responsible for the selective inflow and outflow of molecules, ions, and water, and is a dynamic structure that performs a variety of functions. Cellular membrane systems play an important role in the compartmentalization of cells and maintaining intercellular homeostasis. Abiotic and biotic stress can induce functional impairments to the cellular membrane systems through triggering an increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide (O2 (-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals. There are several pathways that can be utilized to eliminate ROS in plants, e.g., CAT, SOD, and GR and GSH, etc. compared with controls, cadmium, and lead enhanced the concentrations of ROS; decreased the SOD, CAT, and GR activities; the GSH concentration, and the seedling growth. In the case of ultrasonic pretreatment followed by cadmium and lead stresses, the activities of CAT, SOD, and GR were significant higher, and the conductivity of electrolyte leakage and the concentrations of MDA and O2 (-) were significant lower than that of those subjected by cadmium and lead stress. This phenomenon demonstrated ultrasonic pretreatment can help plant eliminate the ROS by enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results suggested that ultrasonic vibration can alleviate the toxicological effect induced by heavy mental.