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Combination of bioleaching by gross bacterial biosurfactants and flocculation: A potential remediation for the heavy metal contaminated soils

Yang, Zhihui, Shi, Wei, Yang, Weichun, Liang, Lifen, Yao, Wenbin, Chai, Liyuan, Gao, Shikang, Liao, Qi
Chemosphere 2018 v.206 pp. 83-91
Burkholderia, aluminum chloride, arsenic, bioleaching, biosurfactants, cadmium, copper, cost effectiveness, flocculation, heavy metals, leachates, lead, liquids, manganese, models, polluted soils, remediation, rhamnolipids, wastes, zinc
Combining bioleaching by the gross biosurfactants of Burkholderia sp. Z-90 and flocculation by poly aluminium chloride (PAC) was proposed to develop a potential environment-friendly and cost-effective technique to remediate the severely contaminated soils by heavy metals. The factors affecting soil bioleaching by the gross biosurfactants of Burkholderia sp. Z-90 were optimized. The results showed the optimal removing efficiencies of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cd, Cu, and As by the Burkholderia sp. Z-90 leachate were 44.0, 32.5, 52.2, 37.7, 24.1 and 31.6%, respectively at soil liquid ratio of 1:20 (w/v) for 5 d, which were more efficient than that by 0.1% of rhamnolipid. The amounts of the bioleached heavy metals by the Burkholderia sp. Z-90 leachate were higher than that by other biosurfactants in the previous studies, although the removal efficiencies of the metals by the leachate were relatively lower. It was suggested that more heavy metals caused more competitive to chelate with function groups of the gross biosurfactants and the metal removal efficiencies by biosurfactants in natural soils were lower than in the artificially contaminated soils. Moreover, the Burkholderia sp. Z-90 leachate facilitated the metals to be transformed to the easily migrating speciation fractions. Additional, the results showed that PAC was efficient in the following flocculation to remove heavy metals in the waste bio-leachates. Our study will provide support for developing a bioleaching technique model to remediate the soils extremely contaminated by heavy metals.