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Atrazine-xenobiotic nuclear receptor interactions induce cardiac inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in quail (Coturnix coturnix coturnix)

Li, Xue-Nan, Zuo, Yu-Zhu, Qin, Lei, Liu, Wei, Li, Yan-Hua, Li, Jin-Long
Chemosphere 2018 v.206 pp. 549-559
Coturnix coturnix, agricultural land, atrazine, cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b, endoplasmic reticulum stress, groundwater, heart, histopathology, homeostasis, inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammation, interleukin-10, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, metabolism, nitric oxide, quails, receptors, signal transduction, surface water, transcription factor NF-kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, xenobiotics
Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most extensively used herbicide that eventually leaches into groundwater and surface water from agricultural areas. Exposure to ATR does harm to the health of human and animals, especially the heart. However, ATR exposure caused cardiotoxicity in bird remains unclear. To evaluate ATR-exerted potential cardiotoxicity in heart, quail were exposed with 0, 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW/day ATR by gavage treatment for 45 days. Cardiac histopathological alternation was observed in ATR-induced quail. ATR exposure increased the Cytochrome P450s and Cytochrome b5 contents, Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system (APND, ERND, AH, and NCR) activities and the expression of CYP isoforms (CYP1B1, CYP2C18, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A7, and CYP4B1) in quail heart. The expression of nuclear xenobiotic receptors (NXRs) was also influenced in the heart by ATR exposure. ATR exposure significantly caused the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB, and IL-8), down-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) expression levels and increased NO content and iNOS activity. The present research provides new insights into the mechanism that ATR-induced cardiotoxicity through up-regulating the expression levels of GRP78 and XBP-1s, triggering ER stress, activating the expression of IRE1α/TRAF2/NF-κB signaling pathway related factors (IRE1α, TRAF2, IKK, and NF-κB) and inducing an inflammatory response in quail hearts. In conclusion, ATR exposure could induce cardiac inflammatory injury via activating NXRs responses, disrupting CYP homeostasis and CYP isoforms transcription, altering NO metabolism and triggering ER stress and inflammatory response by activating IRE1α/TRAF2/NF-κB signaling pathway.