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Arsenic removal by As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata from two contaminated soils: A 5-year study

da Silva, Evandro B., Lessl, Jason T., Wilkie, Ann C., Liu, Xue, Liu, Yungen, Ma, Lena Q.
Chemosphere 2018 v.206 pp. 736-741
Pteris vittata, arsenic, biomass production, phosphorus fertilizers, polluted soils, rock phosphate, soil separates, solubilization, wood
The ability of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata to remove As from two contaminated soils (CCA from an As-treated wood facility and DVA from a cattle-dipping vat) over 5 years was investigated for the first time. The goal was to evaluate P. vittata's ability to continuously remove As during 10 harvests and identify how soil As was affected by P. vittata under P-sufficient (P-fertilizer) and P-limiting (phosphate rock) conditions. Sequential extraction was used to determine changes in metal distribution among different soil fractions. The high frond biomass production occurred on the 9th (62.1–63.9 and 35.6–63.5 g plant⁻¹) and 10th harvest (58.6–60.7 and 51.9–57.1 g plant⁻¹) for CCA and DVB soils, though frond As concentration decreased. Soil arsenic removal averaged 7–10% per harvest during the 1–6th harvests and was reduced to 0–3% during the 7–10th harvests for DVA and CCA soils. Arsenic from all fractions, excluding the residual fraction, was affected by plant uptake. The largest reduction occurred in the amorphous fraction of CCA-soil at 64–66% (61.2–61.5 to 20.8–21.8 mg kg⁻¹) and in the crystalline fraction of DVA-soil at 50–86% (2.18–4.35 to 0.61–1.10 mg kg⁻¹). Soil As concentrations were reduced by 37–47% from 26.7 to 129 to 15.6–16.8 and 68.9–70.1 mg kg⁻¹ for the DVA and CCA soils, respectively. Our data indicated that P. vittata efficiently solubilized non-labile As under P-limiting conditions without impacting its As depletion.