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Opportunities and risks of biofertilization for leek production in urban areas: Influence on both fungal diversity and human bioaccessibility of inorganic pollutants

Pierart, Antoine, Dumat, Camille, Maes, Arthur QuyManh, Roux, Christophe, Sejalon-Delmas, Nathalie
The Science of the total environment 2018 v.624 pp. 1140-1151
Allium porrum, Rhizophagus irregularis, antimony, bioavailability, biofertilizers, cadmium, electron microscopy, fertilizer application, fungal communities, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, humans, lead, leeks, metagenomics, mycorrhizal fungi, pollutants, polluted soils, risk, roots, trace elements, urban areas
The influence of biofertilization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on trace metal and metalloids (TM) - Pb, Cd and Sb - uptake by leek (Allium porrum L.) grown in contaminated soils was investigated. The effect of biofertilization on human bioaccessibility of the TM in the plants was also examined. Leek were cultivated in one soil with geogenic TM sources and one soil with anthropogenic TM, to assess the influence of pollutant origin on soil-plant transfer. Leek were grown for six months on these contaminated soils, with and without a local AMF based biofertilizer. Fungal communities associated with leek roots were identified by high throughput sequencing (illumina Miseq®) metagenomic analysis. The TM compartmentation was studied using electron microscopy in plants tissues. In all the soils, biofertilization generated a loss of diversity favoring the AM fungal species Rhizophagus irregularis, which could explain the observed modification of metal transfer at the soil-AMF-plant interface. The human bioaccessibility of Sb increased in biofertilized treatments. Consequently, this latter result highlights a potential health risk of the use of this fertilization technique on contaminated soil since further field investigation is performed to better understand the mechanisms governing (1) the effect of AMF on TM bioaccessibility and (2) the evolution of AMF communities in contaminated soils.