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A short review on human exposure to and tissue distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)

Jian, Jun-Meng, Chen, Da, Han, Fu-Juan, Guo, Ying, Zeng, Lixi, Lu, Xingwen, Wang, Fei
The Science of the total environment 2018 v.636 pp. 1058-1069
blood, blood groups, blood sampling, breast milk, eating habits, excretion, gender, human diseases, humans, milk, mothers, organofluorine compounds, thyroid diseases, tissue distribution, tissues, urine
PFASs are widely distributed in natural and living environment and can enter human bodies via different routes. Many studies have reported that PFASs may be associated with human diseases, such as urine acid and thyroid diseases. In this study, we reviewed PFAS levels in human bodies reported in past seven years, including blood, urine, milk, and tissues (hair and nails). Most studies focused on human blood. Blood type, spatiality, human age, and gender were found to have a strong relationship with PFAS levels in blood samples. The PFAS distribution in urine samples was reported to be associated with the chain length of PFASs and human gender. Urinary excretion was found to be an important pathway of PFAS elimination. PFAS levels in human milk might be affected by various factors, such as mothers' age, dietary habit, parity of mothers and the interval of interpregnancy. Data in hair and nails remain very limited, but these matrices offer a non-invasive approach to evaluate human exposure to PFASs.