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Accumulation degree and source apportionment of trace metals in smaller than 63 μm road dust from the areas with different land uses: A case study of Xi'an, China

Shi, Dongqi, Lu, Xinwei
The Science of the total environment 2018 v.636 pp. 1211-1218
X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, barium, case studies, chromium, cobalt, copper, dust, humans, land use, lead, manganese, multivariate analysis, nickel, risk, soil, traffic, vanadium, zinc, zirconium, China
Finer urban dusts have more serious environmental detriment and health risk than coarser urban dusts. The trace metals Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Ba, Mn, Ni, V, Y, Rb, Ga, Hf, and Zr were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in smaller than 63 μm road dust collected from the areas with different land use types and human activities in Xi'an city. The purposes of this study were to reveal the impact of human activities on the environment through element enrichment factor, and to determine the sources of trace metals measured by multivariate statistical analysis and multiple liner regression of absolute principal component scores. The results indicated that the smaller than 63 μm road dust in Xi'an, in comparison to the element background value of local soil, had higher Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Y, Hf and Zr concentrations. Trace metals had different variations in the dusts, while the anthropogenic trace metals had no significant difference in the four areas owing to the wide existing of human activities. The accumulation level of Pb was the highest, followed by Cr, Cu and Zn, and then was Hf and Zr, while the other trace metals were deficient or deficient to minimal enrichment in the finer road dust. Source analysis results indicated that Co, Ga, Mn, Ni, V, Rb and Y mainly originated from natural source, which accounted about 57%–87% for these metals' concentration. Ba, Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn primarily derived from traffic source, which contributed approximately 59%–79% to these metals' content. Hf and Zr were mainly from construction source, which contributed 74.6% to Hf concentration and 78.2% to Zr concentration. The study indicated that traffic and construction activities had a predominant influence on local environment.