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An environmentally friendly approach for mitigating cyanobacterial bloom and their toxins in hypereutrophic ponds: Potentiality of a newly developed granular hydrogen peroxide-based compound
- Sinha, Amit Kumar, Eggleton, Michael A., Lochmann, Rebecca T.
- The Science of the total environment 2018 v.637-638 pp. 524-537
- Brachionus, Cladophora, Daphnia, Planktothrix, Spirogyra, Synedra, active ingredients, dose response, human health, hydrogen, hydrogen peroxide, longevity, microcystins, phytoplankton, ponds, sodium carbonate, tanks, toxicity, water quality, zooplankton
- Cyanobacterial blooms and their associated toxins are growing issues for many aquatic resources, and pose a major threat to human health and ecological welfare. To control cyanobacterial blooms and their toxins, the efficacy of a newly developed granular compound (sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate ‘SCP’, trade name ‘PAK® 27’ algaecide) containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the active ingredient was investigated. First, the dose efficacy of the SCP that corresponded to 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 5.0 and 8.0 mg/L H2O2 was tested for 10 days in small-scale tanks installed in 0.1-acre experimental hypereutrophic ponds dominated by blooms of the toxic cyanobacterium Planktothrix sp. SCP ranging from 2.5–4.0 mg/L H2O2 selectively killed Planktothrix sp. without major impacts on either eukaryotic phytoplankton (e.g., diatom Synedra sp., green algae Spirogyra sp. and Cladophora sp.) or zooplankton (e.g., rotifers Brachionus sp. and cladocerans Daphnia sp.). Based on these results, SCP at 2.5 mg/L and 4.0 mg/L H2O2 were homogeneously introduced into entire water volume of the experimental ponds in parallel with untreated control ponds. The dynamics of cyanobacterium Planktothrix sp., microcystins (commonly occurring cyanotoxins), eukaryotic phytoplankton, zooplankton, and water quality parameters were measured daily for 10 days and followed by a weekly sampling for 6 weeks. Temporal analysis indicated that Planktothrix sp. blooms collapsed remarkably in both 2.5 mg/L and 4.0 mg/L H2O2 treatments. Both treatments also were accompanied by an overall reduction in the total microcystin concentration. At 2.5 mg/L H2O2, the growth of eukaryotic phytoplankton (Synedra and Cladophora sp.) increased, but these populations along with zooplankton (Brachionus and Daphnia sp.) were suppressed at 4.0 mg/L H2O2. The longevity of 2.5 and 4.0 mg/L H2O2 treatment effects were up to 5 weeks. In addition, the added granular algaecide degraded within a few days, thereby leaving no long-term traces of H2O2 in the environment.