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Adding benefit to wetlands – Valorization of harvested common reed through mushroom production

Hultberg, Malin, Prade, Thomas, Bodin, Hristina, Vidakovic, Aleksandar, Asp, Håkan
The Science of the total environment 2018 v.637-638 pp. 1395-1399
Phragmites australis, Pleurotus ostreatus, biogeochemical cycles, biomass, constructed wetlands, eutrophication, fruiting bodies, heavy metals, mushroom growing, mushrooms, mycelium, nitrogen, nutrients, phosphorus, potassium, protein content, risk, roughage, ruminants, water purification, Sweden
Wetlands have been successfully implemented as water purification systems for removal of plant nutrients and can play a significant role in nutrient recycling, depending on use of the harvested biomass. In a constructed wetland in southern Sweden examined in this study, assimilation of plant nutrients in wetland biomass corresponded to 234 kg/ha nitrogen, 22.8 kg/ha phosphorus, and 158 kg/ha potassium in the study year (2016). The harvested biomass, composed exclusively of common reed, was evaluated as a substrate for production of oyster mushrooms, one of the most widely produced edible mushrooms in the world. The biological efficiency of the substrate was 138 ± 10%, corresponding to production of 1.4 kg mushrooms (fresh weight) based on 1 kg reed (dry weight). The fruiting bodies had high quality, with total protein concentration 18.3 ± 2.8% and very low levels of contaminating heavy metals. Thus, nutrient assimilation in wetland biomass not only decreases the risk of eutrophication in recipient waters, but can be utilized for direct production of high-quality food. The biomass remaining after mushroom production, composed of mycelium and partly degraded wetland biomass, has potential for use in ruminant feed, i.e., as roughage.