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Fatty acids, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in paired muscle and skin from fish from the Bohai coast, China: Benefits and risks associated with fish consumption

Cui, Lili, Wang, Shasha, Yang, Xianpeng, Gao, Lirong, Zheng, Minghui, Wang, Runhua, Qiao, Lin, Xu, Chi
The Science of the total environment 2018 v.639 pp. 952-960
coasts, cognitive development, dibenzofuran, fatty acid composition, fish, fish consumption, ingestion, muscles, omega-3 fatty acids, pollutants, pollution, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polyunsaturated fatty acids, risk, squid, toxicity, China
Fish consumption benefits early cognitive development and cardiovascular health because of the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fish, but toxic pollutants in fish, like dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), may decrease or counteract these benefits. In this study, the fatty acids, dl-PCBs, and PCDD/Fs were analyzed in paired muscle and skin from 13 fish and one squid species from the Bohai coast, which have been influenced by serious dioxin pollution from the Bohai Rim Region. The total fatty acid concentrations in the muscle and skin were 2.6–87 and 3.6–156 mg/g wet weight (ww), respectively. The total polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations were higher in skin than muscle for almost half of the species. The total PCDD/F and dl-PCB toxic equivalents in the muscle and skin were 0.055–0.68 and 0.0099–0.43 pg/g ww, respectively, and were up to five times higher in the muscle than in the skin for eight species. Few benefit–risk studies for fish consumption with and without skin have been performed, so benefit–risk quotients (BRQs) for eating only muscle, only skin, and eating both were calculated. To achieve the recommended 250 mg of EPA + DHA intake, eating only muscle, only skin, and eating both from seven species with BRQs < 1 would cause no significant risk. Removing skin before eating is not necessary for these species. Three fish species had BRQs < 1 for muscle only but BRQs > 1 for skin only. Removing skin before eating would be better for these species. The other four fish species had BRQs > 1 for eating only muscle, only skin, and eating both, indicating the potential risk caused by PCDD/F and dl-PCB. Amounts of the four fish species consumed should be decreased, and other sources of EPA and DHA should be selected.