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Occurrence, fate and mass loadings of antibiotics in two swine wastewater treatment systems

Zhang, Min, Liu, You-Sheng, Zhao, Jian-Liang, Liu, Wang-Rong, He, Liang-Ying, Zhang, Jin-Na, Chen, Jun, He, Lun-Kai, Zhang, Qian-Qian, Ying, Guang-Guo
The Science of the total environment 2018 v.639 pp. 1421-1431
animal diseases, chlortetracycline, farms, feces, lincomycin, livestock and meat industry, norfloxacin, oxytetracycline, sludge, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, swine, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, urine, wastewater, wastewater treatment
Antibiotics are widely applied in livestock industry to prevent or treat animal diseases. However, those antibiotics are poorly metabolized in livestock animals, most of them being excreted via feces or urine. Hence we need to understand the removal of antibiotics in swine farm wastewater treatment systems. This study investigated occurrence and fate of various antibiotics in two full-scale swine farm wastewater treatment systems (Farm A: anaerobic digester-A2/O-lagoon; Farm B: upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-(A/O)2-lagoon). The results showed the presence of 25 antibiotics out of 40 target antibiotics in the wastewater and sludge samples from the two farms. In Farm A, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfachlorpyridazine, oxytetracycline and lincomycin were predominant in the influent with concentrations up to 166 ± 3.64 μg/L, while in the dewatered sludge chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline and norfloxacin were the predominant target compounds with concentrations up to 29.2 ± 3.74 μg/g. In Farm B, high concentrations (up to 3630 ± 1040 μg/L) of sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine and lincomycin were detected in the influent, and the predominant target antibiotics detected in the dewater sludge were similar to those in Farm A, with concentrations up to 28.6 ± 0.592 μg/g. The aqueous removal rates for the total antibiotics were >99.0% in the wastewater treatment plants of both farms. Among a series of treatment units, the anaerobic digester in Farm A and UASB in Farm B made a significant contribution to the elimination of the target antibiotics from the animal wastewater. The daily mass loadings of total antibiotics in the manure, influent, dewatered sludge and effluent were 17.1, 28.0, 2.53, and 0.0730 g/d for Farm A and 24.5, 354, 3.17, and 0.293 g/d for Farm B. The full-scale swine wastewater treatment facilities could effectively remove antibiotics from swine wastewater, but the dewatered sludge needs to be further treated before disposal on land.