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Population genetics, phylogenomics and hybrid speciation of Juglans in China determined from whole chloroplast genomes, transcriptomes, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

Zhao, Peng, Zhou, Hui-Juan, Potter, Daniel, Hu, Yi-Heng, Feng, Xiao-Jia, Dang, Meng, Feng, Li, Zulfiqar, Saman, Liu, Wen-Zhe, Zhao, Gui-Fang, Woeste, Keith
Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 2018 v.126 pp. 250-265
Juglans regia, Juglans sigillata, chloroplast genome, demography, ecotypes, gene flow, genetic analysis, genomics, genotyping by sequencing, glaciation, humans, hybrids, introgression, landraces, phylogeny, refuge habitats, transcriptome, transcriptomics, walnuts, China
Genomic data are a powerful tool for elucidating the processes involved in the evolution and divergence of species. The speciation and phylogenetic relationships among Chinese Juglans remain unclear. Here, we used results from phylogenomic and population genetic analyses, transcriptomics, Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS), and whole chloroplast genomes (Cp genome) data to infer processes of lineage formation among the five native Chinese species of the walnut genus (Juglans, Juglandaceae), a widespread, economically important group. We found that the processes of isolation generated diversity during glaciations, but that the recent range expansion of J. regia, probably from multiple refugia, led to hybrid formation both within and between sections of the genus. In southern China, human dispersal of J. regia brought it into contact with J. sigillata, which we determined to be an ecotype of J. regia that is now maintained as a landrace. In northern China, walnut hybridized with a distinct lineage of J. mandshurica to form J. hopeiensis, a controversial taxon (considered threatened) that our data indicate is a horticultural variety. Comparisons among whole chloroplast genomes and nuclear transcriptome analyses provided conflicting evidence for the timing of the divergence of Chinese Juglans taxa. J. cathayensis and J. mandshurica are poorly differentiated based our genomic data. Reconstruction of Juglans evolutionary history indicate that episodes of climatic variation over the past 4.5 to 33.80 million years, associated with glacial advances and retreats and population isolation, have shaped Chinese walnut demography and evolution, even in the presence of gene flow and introgression.