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Diversity of multidrug-resistant epidemic Clostridium difficile NAP1/RT027/ST01 strains in tertiary hospitals from Honduras

Hidalgo-Villeda, Fanny, Tzoc, Edgardo, Torres, Luque, Bu, Efraín, Rodríguez, César, Quesada-Gómez, Carlos
Anaerobe 2018 v.52 pp. 75-78
Clostridium difficile, bacteria, clindamycin, cytopathogenicity, diarrhea, feces, fluoroquinolones, genes, genotype, hospitals, human cell lines, linezolid, multiple drug resistance, mutation, patients, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, tigecycline, Europe, Honduras
In recent years, reports of NAP1/RT027/ST01 epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile producing outbreaks of healthcare-associated diarrhea have increased in America and Europe. We cultivated multidrug-resistant NAP1/RT027/ST01 strains from the FQR2 linage from TcdA/TcdB⁺ stool samples obtained from patients in two Honduran hospitals. The PFGE macrorestriction patterns of two of the isolates were new. These bacteria were toxigenic and induced with different magnitude classical cytopathic effects on HeLa cells. Besides their resistance to twelve antibiotics, including to clindamycin, fluoroquinolones, linezolid and tigecycline. In this regard, they show the gyrA mutation that typifies epidemic C. difficile genotypes and carry cfr-like genes in different molecular contexts, respectively. These results confirm the spread of multidrug-resistant NAP1/RT027/ST01 strains in Central America with potential idiosyncratic adaptations.