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Graphene-based immunoassay for human lipocalin-2

Vashist, Sandeep Kumar
Analytical biochemistry 2014 v.446 pp. 96-101
antibodies, blood platelets, blood serum, crosslinking, detection limit, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, graphene, humans, moieties, storage temperature, surface area
We have developed a highly sensitive immunoassay using graphene nano platelets (GNPs) for the rapid detection of human lipocalin-2 (LCN2) in plasma, serum, and whole blood. It has the dynamic range, linear range, limit of detection, and analytical sensitivity of 0.6 to 5120, 80 to 2560, 0.7, and 1pg/ml, respectively. It is the most sensitive assay for the detection of LCN2, which has 80-fold higher analytical sensitivity and 3-fold lesser immunoassay duration than the commercially available sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The functionalization of microtiter plate (MTP) with GNPs, dispersed in 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), provided the increased surface area that leads to higher immobilization density of capture antibodies. Moreover, the generation of free amino groups on MTP and GNPs by APTES enables the leach-proof covalent crosslinking of anti-human LCN2 capture antibody by its carboxyl groups using 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) as the heterobifunctional crosslinker. The anti-LCN2 antibody-bound MTPs were highly stable given that they did not show any significant decrease in their functional activity when stored at 4°C in 0.1M phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 8weeks. The developed immunoassay correlated well with the conventional ELISA, thereby demonstrating its high precision and potential utility for highly sensitive analyte detection in industrial and clinical settings.