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Extension of dynamic range of sensitive nanoparticle-based immunoassays

Hyytiä, Heidi, Ristiniemi, Noora, Laitinen, Päivi, Lövgren, Timo, Pettersson, Kim
Analytical biochemistry 2014 v.446 pp. 82-86
antibodies, confidence interval, europium, immunoassays, models, nanoparticles, regression analysis, troponin I, wells
Nanoparticles have successfully been employed in immunometric assays that require high sensitivity. Certain analytes, however, require dynamic ranges (DRs) around a predetermined cut-off value. Here, we have studied the effects that antibody orientation and addition of free solid-phase and detection antibodies have on assay sensitivity and DR in traditional sandwich-type immunoassays. D-dimer and cardiac troponin I (cTnI), both routinely used in critical care testing, were applied as model analytes. The assays were performed in microtitration wells with preimmobilized solid-phase antibody. Inherently fluorescent nanoparticles coated with second antibody were used to detect the analyte. The selection of antibody orientation and addition of free solid-phase or detection antibody, with nanoparticles and calibrator, desensitized the assays and extended the DR. With D-dimer the upper limit of the DR was improved from 50 to 10,000ng/ml, and with cTnI from 25 to 1000ng/ml. Regression analysis with the Stago STA Liatest D-dimer assay yielded a slope (95% confidence interval) of 0.09 (0.07–0.11) and a y-intercept of −7.79 (−17.87–2.29)ng/L (n=65, r=0.906). Thus it is concluded that Europium(III)-chelate-doped nanoparticles can also be employed in immunoassays that require wide DRs around a certain cut-off limit.