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Adjuvant Effects of Chitosan and Calcium Phosphate Particles in an Inactivated Newcastle Disease Vaccine

Marina A. Volkova, Anna V. Irza, Irina A. Chvala, Sergy F. Frolov, Vladimir V. Drygin, Darrell R. Kapczynski
Avian diseases 2014 v.58 no.1 pp. 46-52
broiler chickens, Newcastle disease, calcium phosphates, intranasal administration, laying hens, humoral immunity, chitosan, disease prevention, inactivated vaccines, vaccine adjuvants, Avian orthoavulavirus 1, vaccination, blood, viral antigens
The adjuvant activity of chitosan (CS) and calcium phosphate (CAP) particles was studied following intranasal (mucosal) administration to commercial chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. After three vaccinations with inactivated NDV in combination with CS or CAP an increase in antibody titers in blood and mucosal samples in chickens was observed when compared with the administration of NDV antigen only. A lower level of humoral immunity was observed in broiler chickens compared to layer-type birds. The CS-based vaccine demonstrated higher antigenic and protective activity following lethal challenge than the vaccine containing CAP. Because CS particles efficiently changed mucosal and humoral immunity and protective activity, CS may in the future be considered for use as a potential adjuvant for production of vaccines for poultry.