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Infectious Bronchitis Virus S2 Expressed from Recombinant Virus Confers Broad Protection Against Challenge

Toro, Haroldo, Zhao, Wei, Breedlove, Cassandra, Zhang, Zhenyu, van Santen, Vicky, Yu, Qingzhong
Avian diseases 2014 v.58 no.1 pp. 83
Infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, RNA, antibodies, antibody formation, chickens, genes, hemagglutination, hemagglutination inhibition test, immune system, live vaccines, pathogenicity, recombinant vaccines, trachea (vertebrates), vaccination, vaccine development, viral load, viruses
We developed a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (rLS) expressing the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S2 gene (rLS/IBV.S2). The recombinant virus showed somewhat-reduced pathogenicity compared to the parental lentogenic LaSota strain but effectively elicited hemagglutination inhibition antibodies against NDV and protected chickens against lethal challenge with virulent NDV/CA02. IBV heterotypic protection was assessed using a prime-boost approach with a commercially available attenuated IBV Massachusetts (Mass)-type vaccine. Specific-pathogen-free chickens primed ocularly with rLS/IBV.S2 at 4 days of age and boosted with Mass at 18 days of age were completely protected against challenge at 41 days of age with a virulent Ark-type strain. In a second experiment, we compared protection conferred by priming with rLS/IBV.S2 and boosting with Mass (rLS/IBV.S2+Mass) versus priming and boosting with Mass (Mass+Mass). We also modified the timing of vaccination to prime at 1 day of age and boost at 12 days of age. Challenge with virulent Ark was performed at 21 days of age. Based on clinical signs, both vaccinated groups appeared equally protected against challenge compared to unvaccinated challenged chickens. Viral loads in lachrymal fluids of birds receiving rLS/IBV.S2+Mass showed a clear tendency of improved protection compared to Mass+Mass; however, the difference did not achieve statistical significance. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was determined between these groups regarding incidence of detection of challenge IBV RNA in the trachea; viral RNA was detected in 50% of rLS/IBV.S2+Mass-vaccinated chickens while chickens vaccinated with Mass+Mass and unvaccinated challenged controls showed 84 and 90% incidence of IBV RNA detection in the trachea, respectively. These results demonstrate that overexposing the IBV S2 to the chicken immune system by means of a vectored vaccine, followed by boost with whole virus, protects chickens against IBV showing dissimilar S1.