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Pan-genomic approach shows insight of genetic divergence and pathogenic-adaptation of Pasteurella multocida

Hurtado, Raquel, Carhuaricra, Dennis, Soares, Siomar, Viana, Marcus Vinicius Canário, Azevedo, Vasco, Maturrano, Lenin, Aburjaile, Flávia
Gene 2018 v.670 pp. 193-206
Pasteurella multocida, acute course, domestic animals, fowl cholera, genes, genetic variation, horizontal gene transfer, hosts, metabolism, morbidity, mortality, pathogens, pneumonia, proteins, rhinitis, septicemia, sequence analysis, serotypes, sugars
Pasteurella multocida is a gram-negative, non-motile bacterial pathogen, which is associated with chronic and acute infections as snuffles, pneumonia, atrophic rhinitis, fowl cholera and hemorrhagic septicemia. These diseases affect a wide range of domestic animals, leading to significant morbidity and mortality and causing significant economic losses worldwide. Due to the interest in deciphering the genetic diversity and process adaptive between P. multocida strains, this work aimed was to perform a pan-genome analysis to evidence horizontal gene transfer and positive selection among 23 P. multocida strains isolated from distinct diseases and hosts. The results revealed an open pan-genome containing 3585 genes and an accessory genome presenting 1200 genes. The phylogenomic analysis based on the presence/absence of genes and islands exhibit high levels of plasticity, which reflects a high intraspecific diversity and a possible adaptive mechanism responsible for the specific disease manifestation between the established groups (pneumonia, fowl cholera, hemorrhagic septicemia and snuffles). Additionally, we identified differences in accessory genes among groups, which are involved in sugar metabolism and transport systems, virulence-related genes and a high concentration of hypothetical proteins. However, there was no specific indispensable functional mechanism to decisively correlate the presence of genes and their adaptation to a specific host/disease. Also, positive selection was found only for two genes from sub-group hemorrhagic septicemia, serotype B. This comprehensive comparative genome analysis will provide new insights of horizontal gene transfers that play an essential role in the diversification and adaptation mechanism into P. multocida species to a specific disease.