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Top-Down Proteomics Enables Comparative Analysis of Brain Proteoforms Between Mouse Strains

Davis, Roderick G., Park, Hae-Min, Kim, Kyunggon, Greer, Joseph B., Fellers, Ryan T., LeDuc, Richard D., Romanova, Elena V., Rubakhin, Stanislav S., Zombeck, Jonathan A., Wu, Cong, Yau, Peter M., Gao, Peng, van Nispen, Alexandra J., Patrie, Steven M., Thomas, Paul M., Sweedler, Jonathan V., Rhodes, Justin S., Kelleher, Neil L.
Analytical chemistry 2018 v.90 no.6 pp. 3802-3810
brain, calmodulin, computer software, disease course, gene expression regulation, gene ontology, genes, genotype, human diseases, mass spectrometry, mice, models, phenotype, protein composition, proteome, proteomics
Over the past decade, advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have accelerated brain proteome research aimed at studying the expression, dynamic modification, interaction and function of proteins in the nervous system that are associated with physiological and behavioral processes. With the latest hardware and software improvements in top-down mass spectrometry, the technology has expanded from mere protein profiling to high-throughput identification and quantification of intact proteoforms. Murine systems are broadly used as models to study human diseases. Neuroscientists specifically study the mouse brain from inbred strains to help understand how strain-specific genotype and phenotype affect development, functioning, and disease progression. This work describes the first application of label-free quantitative top-down proteomics to the analysis of the mouse brain proteome. Operating in discovery mode, we determined physiochemical differences in brain tissue from four healthy inbred strains, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, and BALB/cByJ, after probing their intact proteome in the 3.5–30 kDa mass range. We also disseminate these findings using a new tool for top-down proteomics, TDViewer and cataloged them in a newly established Mouse Brain Proteoform Atlas. The analysis of brain tissues from the four strains identified 131 gene products leading to the full characterization of 343 of the 593 proteoforms identified. Within the results, singly and doubly phosphorylated ARPP-21 proteoforms, known to inhibit calmodulin, were differentially expressed across the four strains. Gene ontology (GO) analysis for detected differentially expressed proteoforms also helps to illuminate the similarities and dissimilarities in phenotypes among these inbred strains.