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NIST Standards for Measurement, Instrument Calibration, and Quantification of Gaseous Atmospheric Compounds

Rhoderick, George C., Kelley, Michael E., Miller, Walter R., Norris, James E., Carney, Jennifer, Gameson, Lyn, Cecelski, Christina E., Harris, Kimberly J., Goodman, Cassie A., Srivastava, Abneesh, Hodges, Joseph T.
Analytical chemistry 2018 v.90 no.7 pp. 4711-4718
air, atmospheric chemistry, calibration, carbon dioxide, climate, emissions, greenhouse effect, greenhouse gases, methane, monoterpenoids, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, ozone, ozone depletion, particulates, photochemistry, stratosphere, sulfur dioxide
There are many gas phase compounds present in the atmosphere that affect and influence the earth’s climate. These compounds absorb and emit radiation, a process which is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The major greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Some halocarbons are also strong greenhouse gases and are linked to stratospheric ozone depletion. Hydrocarbons and monoterpenes are precursors and contributors to atmospheric photochemical processes, which lead to the formation of particulates and secondary photo-oxidants such as ozone, leading to photochemical smog. Reactive gases such as nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide are also compounds found in the atmosphere and generally lead to the formation of other oxides. These compounds can be oxidized in the air to acidic and corrosive gases and contribute to photochemical smog. Measurements of these compounds in the atmosphere have been ongoing for decades to track growth rates and assist in curbing emissions of these compounds into the atmosphere. To accurately establish mole fraction trends and assess the role of these gas phase compounds in atmospheric chemistry, it is essential to have good calibration standards. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been developing standards of many of these compounds for over 40 years. This paper discusses the development of these standards.