U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Significance of starch properties and quantity on sponge cake volume

Hyun-Wook Choi, Byung-Kee Baik
Cereal Chemistry 2014 v.91 no.3 pp. 280-285
amylose, baking, baking quality, endosperm, food composition, pasting properties, qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, sponge cakes, temperature, viscosity, wheat, wheat flour, wheat starch
We evaluated the qualitative and quantitative effects of wheat starch on sponge cake (SC) baking quality. Twenty wheat flours, including soft white and club wheat of normal, partial waxy and waxy endosperm, and hard wheat, were tested for amylose content, pasting properties, and SC baking quality. Starches isolated from wheat flours of normal, single-null partial waxy, double-null partial waxy and waxy endosperm were also tested for pasting properties and baked to SC. Double-null partial waxy and waxy wheat flours produced SC of 828 to 895 mL in volume, while volume of SC baked from normal and single-null partial waxy wheat flours ranged from 1093 to 1335 mL. The amylose content of soft white and club wheat flour was positively related to the volume of sponge cake (r=0.790, P<0.001). Pasting temperature, peak viscosity, final viscosity, breakdown and setback also showed significant relationships with SC volume. Normal and waxy starch blends having amylose content of 25, 20, 15 and 10% produced SCs of 1570, 1435, 1385 and 1185 mL in volume, respectively. More than 80 g starch or more than 75% starch in 100 g starch-gluten blends in replacement of 100 g wheat flour in the SC baking formula were needed to produce SC having the maximum volume potential. Starch properties including amylose content and pasting properties as well as proportion of starch evidently play significant roles in SC baking quality of wheat flour.