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Analytical method for biomonitoring of perfluoroalkyl acids in human urine

Jurado-Sánchez, Beatriz, Ballesteros, Evaristo, Gallego, Mercedes
Talanta 2014 v.128 pp. 141-146
adverse effects, carboxylic acids, catalytic activity, detection limit, environmental monitoring, excretion, gas chromatography, humans, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, pyridines, residential areas, solid phase extraction, statistical analysis, urine
Perfluoroalkyl acids are an important class of synthetic compounds widely used in commercial and residential settings, which may have potential adverse health effects. The objective of this study was to monitor 6 perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluorooctane sulphonate in human urine to obtain a way to asses exposure. The target analytes were extracted from urine by using a semi automated solid-phase extraction module and derivatised with isobutyl chloroformate by catalysis with 3% N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in pyridine. Determination and quantisation were achieved by gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer detector operating in the selected-ion monitoring mode. The developed approach is fast and provided low limits of detection (0.2–1.0ngL⁻¹) with good precision (relative standard deviation lower than 7.5%, within-day and between day). Recoveries from urine samples, which were spiked with the studied compounds at levels of 10 and 50ngL⁻¹ ranged from 93% to 96%. Perfluorohexanoic (≤70ngL⁻¹) and perfluoroheptanoic acids (<2ngL⁻¹) were found in the urine samples from exposed researchers taken after handling these compounds. From the calculation of the excretion kinetics it was found that the dosage absorbed was eliminated within 15h after exposure.