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Virulence profiles of enterotoxigenic, shiga toxin and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in South African pigs
- Mohlatlole, Ramadimetja Prescilla, Madoroba, Evelyn, Muchadeyi, Farai Catherine, Chimonyo, Michael, Kanengoni, Arnold Tapera, Dzomba, Edgar Farai
- Tropical animal health and production 2013 v.45 no.6 pp. 1399-1405
- Duroc, Large White, Shiga toxin, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, adhesins, diarrhea, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, fimbriae, genes, heat stability, landraces, pathotypes, piglets, polymerase chain reaction, virulence
- Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and shiga toxin E. coli (STEC) are important causes of colibacillosis in piglets. Recently, enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST-1) has been implicated in pig diarrhoea. This study investigated the prevalence of enterotoxin [heat-labile toxins (LT), heat-stable toxin a (STa), heat-stable toxin b (STb)], shiga toxins (Stx1, Stx2, Stx2e), enteroaggregative heat-stable E. coli (EAST-1), associated fimbriae (F4, F5, F6, F41, F18ab, F18ac) and non-fimbrial adhesins [adhesin involved in diffuse adherence 1 (AIDA-1), attaching and effacing factor, porcine attaching- and effacing-associated factor] in South African pigs. A total of 263 E. coli strains were isolated from Landrace (n = 24), Large White (n = 126), Duroc (n = 28) and indigenous (n = 85) breeds of piglets aged between 9 and 136 days. PCR was used in the analysis. Virulent genes were detected in 40.3 % of the isolates, of which 18.6, 0.4 and 17.5 % were classified as ETEC, STEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), respectively. Individual genes were found in the following proportions: STb (19.01 %), LT (0.4 %), STa (3.4 %), St2xe (1.1 %) and EAST-1 (20.2 %) toxins. None of the tested fimbriae were detected in ETEC and STEC isolates. About one third of the ETEC and STEC isolates was tested negative for both fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesins. Twenty-five pathotypes from ETEC-, EAEC- and STEC-positive strains were identified. Pathotypes EAST-1 (30.2 %), STb (13.2 %) and STb/AIDA-1 (10.4 %) were most prevalent. The study provided insight on possible causes of colibacillosis in South African pigs.