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Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria

Mai, H.M., Irons, P.C., Kabir, J., Thompson, P.N.
Preventive veterinary medicine 2013 v.111 no.3-4 pp. 256-267
Brucella, Campylobacter fetus, animal tests, antibodies, bovine brucellosis, bulls, campylobacteriosis, environmental factors, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, farms, fetus, goats, herd size, interviews, logit analysis, markets, models, pastoralism, quarantine, questionnaires, rain, reproductive efficiency, risk factors, seroprevalence, sheep, surveys, Nigeria
Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with higher counts, and provision of mineral supplement with lower counts of Brucella-positive cattle within herds. Identification of risk factors for bovine campylobacteriosis and brucellosis can help to identify appropriate control measures, and the use of zero-inflated count model can provide more specific information on these risk factors.