Main content area

Osteoimmunomodulatory properties of magnesium scaffolds coated with β-tricalcium phosphate

Chen, Zetao, Mao, Xueli, Tan, Lili, Friis, Thor, Wu, Chengtie, Crawford, Ross, Xiao, Yin
Biomaterials 2014 v.35 no.30 pp. 8553-8565
biocompatible materials, biodegradability, bone formation, bone marrow, coatings, immune response, inflammation, macrophages, magnesium, orthopedics, phenotype, phosphates, signal transduction, stromal cells, tissue engineering, vascular endothelial growth factors
The osteoimmunomodulatory property of bone biomaterials is a vital property determining the in vivo fate of the implants. Endowing bone biomaterials with favorable osteoimmunomodulatory properties is of great importance in triggering desired immune response and thus supports the bone healing process. Magnesium (Mg) has been recognized as a revolutionary metal for applications in orthopedics due to it being biodegradable, biocompatible, and having osteoconductive properties. However, Mg's high rate of degradation leads to an excessive inflammatory response and this has restricted its application in bone tissue engineering. In this study, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was used to coat Mg scaffolds in an effort to modulate the detrimental osteoimmunomodulatory properties of Mg scaffolds, due to the reported favorable osteoimmunomodulatory properties of β-TCP. It was noted that macrophages switched to the M2 extreme phenotype in response to the Mg-β-TCP scaffolds, which could be due to the inhibition of the toll like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. VEGF and BMP2 were significantly upregulated in the macrophages exposed to Mg-β-TCP scaffolds, indicating pro-osteogenic properties of macrophages in β-TCP modified Mg scaffolds. This was further demonstrated by the macrophage-mediated osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). When BMSCs were stimulated by conditioned medium from macrophages cultured on Mg-β-TCP scaffolds, osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly enhanced; whereas osteoclastogenesis was inhibited, as indicated by the downregualtion of MCSF, TRAP and inhibition of the RANKL/RANK system. These findings suggest that β-TCP coating of Mg scaffolds can modulate the scaffold's osteoimmunomodulatory properties, shift the immune microenvironment towards one that favors osteogenesis over osteoclastogenesis. Endowing bone biomaterials with favorable osteoimmunomodulatory properties can be a highly valuable strategy for the development or modification of advanced bone biomaterials.