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ECM hydrogel coating mitigates the chronic inflammatory response to polypropylene mesh
- Faulk, Denver M., Londono, Ricardo, Wolf, Matthew T., Ranallo, Christian A., Carruthers, Christopher A., Wildemann, Justin D., Dearth, Christopher L., Badylak, Stephen F.
- Biomaterials 2014 v.35 no.30 pp. 8585-8595
- animal models, coatings, collagen, extracellular matrix, fibrosis, hernia, hydrogels, inflammation, macrophages, muscles, polypropylenes, strength (mechanics), surface area, synthetic products
- Polypropylene has been used as a surgical mesh material for several decades. This non-degradable synthetic polymer provides mechanical strength, a predictable host response, and its use has resulted in reduced recurrence rates for ventral hernia and pelvic organ prolapse. However, polypropylene and similar synthetic materials are associated with a chronic local tissue inflammatory response and dense fibrous tissue deposition. These outcomes have prompted variations in mesh design to minimize the surface area interface and increase integration with host tissue. In contrast, biologic scaffold materials composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are rapidly degraded in-vivo and are associated with constructive tissue remodeling and minimal fibrosis. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of an ECM hydrogel coating on the long-term host tissue response to polypropylene mesh in a rodent model of abdominal muscle injury. At 14 days post implantation, the ECM coated polypropylene mesh devices showed a decreased inflammatory response as characterized by the number and distribution of M1 macrophages (CD86+/CD68+) around mesh fibers when compared to the uncoated mesh devices. At 180 days the ECM coated polypropylene showed decreased density of collagen and amount of mature type I collagen deposited between mesh fibers when compared to the uncoated mesh devices. This study confirms and extends previous findings that an ECM coating mitigates the chronic inflammatory response and associated scar tissue deposition characteristic of polypropylene.