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Modeling the Effects of Temperature, Sodium Chloride, and Green Tea and Their Interactions on the Thermal Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in Turkey

Vijay K. Juneja, Jimena Garcia-Davila, Julio Cesar Lopez-Romero, Etna Aida Pena-Ramos, Juan Pedro Camou, Martin Valenzuela-Melandres
Journal of food protection 2014 v.77 no.10 pp. 1696-1702
polyphenols, yeast extract, heat treatment, protective effect, heat tolerance, sodium, agar, Listeria monocytogenes, pathogens, pyruvic acid, heat, models, sodium chloride, temperature, heat inactivation, bags, green tea, turkeys, meat quality, food industry, ground turkey meat, death, Turkey (country)
The interactive effects of heating temperature (55 to 65°C), sodium chloride (NaCl; 0 to 2%), and green tea 60% polyphenol extract (GTPE; 0 to 3%) on the heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in ground turkey were determined. Thermal death times were quantified in bags that were submerged in a circulating water bath set at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65°C. The recovery medium was tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract and 1% sodium pyruvate. D-values were analyzed by second-order response surface regression for temperature, NaCl, and GTPE. The data indicated that all three factors interacted to affect the inactivation of the pathogen. The D-values for turkey with no NaCl or GTPE at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65°C were 36.3, 20.8, 13.2, 4.1, and 2.9 min, respectively. Although NaCl exhibited a concentration-dependent protective effect against heat lethality on L. monocytogenes in turkey, addition of GTPE rendered the pathogen more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. GTPE levels up to 1.5% interacted with NaCl and reduced the protective effect of NaCl on heat resistance of the pathogen. Food processors can use the predictive model to design an appropriate heat treatment that would inactivate L. monocytogenes in cooked turkey products without adversely affecting the quality of the product.