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The Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Constituents on Blood Inflammation and Coagulation
- Liu, Cong, Cai, Jing, Qiao, Liping, Wang, Hongli, Xu, Wenxi, Li, Huichu, Zhao, Zhuohui, Chen, Renjie, Kan, Haidong
- Environmental science & technology 2017 v.51 no.14 pp. 8128-8137
- C-reactive protein, acute effects, ammonium, biomarkers, blood, chemokine CCL2, coagulation, environmental science, fibrinogen, inflammation, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, ligands, models, nitrates, organic carbon, particulates, plasminogen activator inhibitors, sulfates, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, vascular cell adhesion molecules, China
- Limited evidence is available on the effects of various fine particulate matter (PM₂.₅) constituents on blood inflammation and coagulation. We examined the associations between 10 constituents and 10 circulating biomarkers in a panel of 28 urban residents with four repeated measurements in Shanghai, China. Based on the linear mixed-effect models, we fitted the single-constituent models, the constituent-PM₂.₅ joint models, and the constituent-residual models to evaluate the associations between PM₂.₅ constituents and eight inflammatory biomarkers (fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1b, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) and two coagulation biomarkers (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and soluble CD40 ligand). We found robust associations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), nitrate (NO₃–), and ammonium (NH₄⁺) with at least 1 of 8 inflammatory markers. On average, an interquartile range increase in the four constituents corresponded to increments of 50%, 37%, 25%, and 26% in inflammatory biomarkers, respectively. Only sulfate (SO₄²–) or NH₄⁺ was robustly associated with coagulation markers (corresponding increments: 23% and 20%). Our results provided evidence that some constituents in PM₂.₅ (OC, EC, NO₃–, SO₄²–, and NH₄⁺) might play crucial roles in inducing systematic inflammation and coagulation, but their roles varied by the selected biomarkers.