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Isomer-Specific Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) Levels in Top Predator Fish from Across Canada and 36-Year Temporal Trends in Lake Ontario
- Su, Guanyong, McGoldrick, Daryl J., Clark, Mandi G., Evans, Marlene S., Gledhill, Melissa, Garron, Christine, Armelin, Alain, Backus, Sean M., Letcher, Robert J.
- Environmental science & technology 2018 v.52 no.11 pp. 6197-6207
- Salvelinus fontinalis, Salvelinus namaycush, basins, emissions, freshwater fish, half life, hexabromocyclododecane, isomers, lakes, pollutants, surface water, toxicity, Canada, Lake Ontario
- Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a high concern environmental pollutant due to its persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties. The spatial distribution of HBCDD was investigated in top predator fish (lake trout, walleye, or brook trout) collected in 2013 (n = 165) from 19 sampling sites and in 2015 (n = 145) from 20 sites across Canada. HBCDD was measurable in at least one sample at each sampling site regardless of sampling year with the exception of walleye from the south basin of Lake Winnipeg (2013). Sampling sites in or near the Laurentian Great Lakes had greater ΣHBCDD concentrations compared to locations to the west or east. The greatest mean ΣHBCDD concentration was 72.6 ng/g lw in fish from Lake Huron–Goderich (2015). Regardless of the sampling sites, α-HBCDD was the dominant congener followed by γ-HBCDD, whereas β-HBCDD was barely detectable. In fish from the same waterbody there were comparable α/γ isomer concentration ratios. The greatest ratio was 20.8 in fish from Lake Ontario, whereas the lowest ratio was 6.3 for fish from Lac Memphrémagog (Québec) likely related to more recent emissions of a technical HBCDD mixture. Temporal trends of HBCDD in lake trout from Lake Ontario showed a significant decreasing trend for γ-HBCDD with a half-life estimate of 10 years over a 36-year period (1979–2015), and for α-HBCDD with a half-life of 11 years over the years of 2008 to 2015. The proportion of α-HBCDD to ΣHBCDD increased significantly during 1979 to 2015. The present study provided novel information on the isomer-specific HBCDDs in Canada freshwater fish.