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Endogenous peptides as risk markers to assess the development of insulin resistance

Fang, Penghua, Shi, Mingyi, Yu, Mei, Guo, Lili, Bo, Ping, Zhang, Zhenwen
Peptides 2014 v.51 pp. 9-14
adiponectin, adipose tissue, etiology, ghrelin, glucose, insulin resistance, muscles, pathogenesis, retinol-binding protein, risk factors
Insulin resistance, the reciprocal of insulin sensitivity, is known to be a characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and is regarded as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis. The hallmark of insulin resistance is a gradual break-down of insulin-regulative glucose uptake by muscle and adipose tissues in subjects. Insulin resistance is increasingly estimated in various disease conditions to examine and assess their etiology, pathogenesis and consequences. Although our understanding of insulin resistance has tremendously been improved in recent years, certain aspects of its estimation and etiology still remain elusive to clinicians and researchers. There are numerous factors involved in pathogenesis and mechanisms of insulin resistance. Recent studies have provided compelling clues about some peptides and proteins, including galanin, galanin-like peptide, ghrelin, adiponectin, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and CRP, which may be used to simplify and to improve the determination of insulin resistance. And alterations of these peptide levels may be recognized as risk markers of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review examines the updated information for these peptides, highlighting the relations between these peptide levels and insulin resistance. The plasma high ghrelin, RBP4 and CRP as well as low galanin, GALP and adiponectin levels may be taken as the markers of deteriorating insulin resistance. An increase in the knowledge of these marker proteins and peptides will help us correctly diagnose and alleviate insulin resistance in clinic and study.