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Assessment of mobility and its impact on energy use and air pollution in Nepal

Malla, Sunil
Energy 2014 v.69 pp. 485-496
air pollutants, air pollution, air quality, carbon dioxide, energy, energy use and consumption, freight, gasoline, greenhouse gas emissions, road transportation, travel, trucks, urban areas, Nepal
Understanding of existing motorized and non-motorized transport services is a key challenge for landlocked Nepal in addressing sustainable transport system development. This paper assesses mobility and estimates current travel demand, energy use and emissions from different transport modes for Kathmandu (capital city) and for rest of the country. Road transport dominates all transport modes in Nepal. In per-capita terms, country's motorized road passenger travel (1461 km) is amongst the lowest in the world. Private vehicles (mainly motor cycle) in Kathmandu and public vehicles (mainly bus) in rest of the country, dominate road passenger travel. Trucks dominate in freight transport services. More than half of country's total commercial energy is consumed by transport sector. Kathmandu alone consumes country's half of gasoline and 20% of diesel supply. The current level of country's road energy use, based on road energy use index, remains one of the lowest in the world. However, emissions of local air pollutant from motor vehicles are significant and they are likely responsible for deteriorating air quality in the country's urban areas. Although less significant in the global context, transport sector is responsible for more than half of country's total energy-related CO2 emissions.