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Acute toxicity study and effect of prolonged administration (28 days) of crude ethanolic root extract of Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst (Ebenaceae) on clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters of albino rats

Luka, J., Badau, S.J., Mbaya, A.W., Gadzama, J.J., Kumshe, H.A.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2014 v.153 no.1 pp. 268-273
Diospyros mespiliformis, acute toxicity, antimalarials, blood serum, body weight changes, death, enzymes, erythrocytes, hematocrit, hematology, hemoglobin, lethal dose 50, leukocytes, local government, rats, roots, toxicity testing, traditional medicine, Nigeria
Different parts of the plant Diospyros mespiliformis have been used traditionally for the treatment of ailments in Nigeria particularly among the Kamwe people of Michika local government area of Adamawa State where the root has been used as an anti-malarial for ages. Most of the uses have been without any scientific evidence and toxicological assessment. The present study aimed to determine acute toxicity profile as well as the effect of prolonged administration of the extract on clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters of albino rats.Thirty and twenty-five Wistar rats of both sexes and of varying weights were, respectively, used for acute toxicity study and prolonged administration study of crude ethanolic root extract of Diospyros mespiliformis. The rats used for both studies were each administered graded concentrations of the extract (100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600mg/kg) for acute toxicity testing and (50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg) for the study of the effect of prolonged administration. The rats used for acute toxicity study were observed for a period of 24h for signs of toxicity and eventual death while parameters for prolonged study were recorded at weekly interval starting from day zero up to day 28 post administration.The extract produced an intraperitoneal LD50 of 570mg/kg. Body weight changes were not statistically significant (p>0.05) while haematological parameters (packed cell volume (PCV)), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and differential leucocyte counts (DLC) were significantly modulated (p>0.05) after administration. Haematological indices (mean corpuscular volume (MCV)), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were similarly modulated significantly (p>0.05).The extract appeared to be moderately toxic while prolonged administration improved the blood parameters of rats, suggesting that the plant׳s extract at lower doses can be used for a prolonged period, without deleterious effect on the haematological profile and serum enzymes.