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Membrane Fouling and Rejection of Organics during Algae-Laden Water Treatment Using Ultrafiltration: A Comparison between in Situ Pretreatment with Fe(II)/Persulfate and Ozone
- Liu, Bin, Qu, Fangshu, Yu, Huarong, Tian, Jiayu, Chen, Wei, Liang, Heng, Li, Guibai, Van der Bruggen, Bart
- Environmental science & technology 2018 v.52 no.2 pp. 765-774
- 2-methylisoborneol, coagulation, dissolved organic carbon, fouling, geosmin, iron, metabolites, microcystin-LR, oxidation, ozonation, ozone, ultrafiltration, water treatment
- In this study, in situ pretreatments with ozone and Fe(II)/persulfate were employed to suppress membrane fouling during the filtration of algae-laden water and to improve the rejection of metabolites. Both ozonation and Fe(II)/persulfate pretreatments negatively impacted the cell integrity, especially ozonation. Fe(II)/persulfate pretreatment improved the removal of dissolved organic carbon and microcystin-LR, but ozonation resulted in a deterioration in the quality of the filtered water. This suggests that the Fe(II)/persulfate oxidation is selective for organic degradation over cell damage. With ozonation, 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin were detected in the filtered water, and the irreversible fouling increased. The intracellular organic release and generation of small organic compounds with ozonation may be the reason for the increased membrane fouling. Fe(II)/persulfate oxidation substantially mitigated the membrane-fouling resistance at concentrations over 0.2 mM compared to the membrane-fouling resistance without oxidation. The combined effect of oxidation and coagulation is likely the reason for the excellent fouling control with Fe(II)/persulfate pretreatment. Membrane fouling during the filtration of algae-laden water is successively governed by complete-blocking and cake-filtration mechanisms. Ozonation caused a shift in the initial major mechanism to intermediate blocking, and the Fe(II)/persulfate pretreatment (>0.2 mM) converted the dominant mechanism into single-standard blocking.